The main features of the patented paving element are its shape (inner honeycomb surface and radial archs) and its optimum size (from 100 mm*100mm*35mm (that is equal to 3.28ft.x 3.28ft.x1.15 ft.) to 400mm x 400mm x 60mm (that is equal to 13.11ft.x13.11ft.x 2ft.). The production of the ceramic paving element involves traditional sequence with usage of a special mold.

Invention formula

The paving elements has a front surface(1) and a supporting surface, which has a deepening(2) with a vault arranged in the opposite position with respect to the front surface(1). The supporting surface also has stiffening ribs(3), placed perpendicularly to the front surface(1). The butts of the stiffening ribs form the main supporting surface(4) of the paving element. The vault of the deepening has at least one additional supporting surface(5) placed at an angle of 10 – 450 with respect to the main supporting surface. The total supporting surface area of the paving element is selected according to the following dependence:

  • 0,5Sfront.≤Smain.+Sadd.≤0,75Sfront.
  • Sfront. – front surface area;
  • Smain. – main supporting surface area;
  • Sadd. – additional supporting surface area.

Additional supporting surfaces(5) placed at an angle of 10 – 450 with respect to the main supporting surface(4) are unique. During laying the deepening of the paving element becomes filled with the bottom. This guarantees a horizontal fixation of the paving element and prevents its subsidence.

The shrinkage of the bottom will take place if the area covered with the patented paving elements is moistened and intensively exploited. In such case the hollow near the deepening vault will form. This hollow will greatly increase heat-proofness of the front surface, reduce thermal conductivity of the whole paving element and consequently accelerate ice melting in winter etc. The temperature of the front surface will be almost equal to the temperature of environment. The temperature of the butts of the stiffening ribs is below the temperature of environment. At the same time the existence of at least one additional supporting surface on the vault of the deepening of the paving element increases the total supporting surface area to 50 – 70 % of the front surface area.

Additional supporting surface placed at an angle of 10– 45o with respect to the main supporting surface allows to reach the full contact of the bottom material and the additional supporting surface. This additional supporting surface itself transmits working load from the additional supporting surface to the bottom. The additional supporting surface and the stiffening ribs create the best conditions for preventing subsidence. Also consequently to “sticking” of the paving element to a damp ground one can observe cohesion of the paving element and the bottom (so there is no need to use cement).

Here is the laying sequence of the patented paving element step by step:

1.      Put a layer of damp sand on the ground;

2.      Ram the sand with a help of lightweight pavement rollers etc;

3.      Then put a layer of wet loose sand without binding components on the first layer. This layer is the bottom;

4.      Then put the patented paving elements on the bottom. The deepening (2) should be filled up with sand;

5.      The front surfaces(1) of all the paving elements should be on the same level to form a single whole. The butts of stiffening ribs(3), that form the main supporting surface(4) should rest upon the first layer of sand and the additional supporting surface(5) should rest upon the bottom;

6.      After that the layed paving elements should be watered. Thanks to this the bottom becomes satiated with water and shrinks;

7.      The shrinkage causes formation of a hollow near the deepening vault;

8.      As the additional supporting surface(5) is placed at an angle of 10 - 450 with respect to the main supporting surface(4), the sand shifts under the additional supporting surface(5) during the shrinkage. This guarantees the full contact of the whole supporting surface of the paving element with the bottom layer and the first layer of sand. The value of α angle is stipulated by the following factor:

a.      If α is less than 10, than formation of hollows under the additional supporting surface(5) will be observed;

b.     If α is more than 450, there will be loosening of the bottom near the additional supporting surface(5).

All this reduces the load-carrying ability of the paving element.

Now there are several different variations of this paving element. The trials of the paving element confirmed the high exploitation features of the patented element.

This invention is protected. The owner of the patent offer the interested persons to conclude the license agreement on use of the invention.

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